Frequency of Hypokalemia, Clinical Implications and Risk Factors in Patients of COVID-19


  • Sarmad Zahoor Mayo Hospital, Lahore.
  • Uzma Malik Mayo Hospital, Lahore.
  • Malik Muhammad Atif Mayo Hospital, Lahore.
  • Sadia Asif Mayo Hospital, Lahore.
  • Aleena Khan Mayo Hospital, Lahore.
  • Sumera Hanif Mayo Hospital, Lahore.
  • Ibrar Rafique Health Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Islamabad.
  • Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib Department of Medical Lab technology, National Skills University, Islamabad.


Severe COVID-19, hypokalemia, steroids, anticoagulant


Objective: To determine the frequency of hypokalemia among COVID-19 patients and assess its impact on the patients management.

Study type, settings & duration: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Mayo Hospital, Lahore from July 2020 to January 2021.  

Methodology: A total of 212 SARS-COV-2 positive patients who had developed severe disease were enrolled. Based on the level of potassium, the patients were classified as mild, moderate and severe hypokalemia cases. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire including demography, clinical presentations and medication including use of anticoagulant and steroids.

Results: Of the total 210, 46 (21.9%) patients had hypokalemia and among them 23 (11%) showed mild, 17 (8.1%) moderate and 6 (2.9%) severe hypokalemia. Out of 210, 17 (23.9%) patients were treated with hydrocortisone, 11 (17.4%) with methylprednisolone and 18 (23.3%) with dexamethasone and no significant difference was seen in development of hypokalemia (p =0.630). Similarly, 39 (21.4%) patients were given enoxaparin and 7 (24.1%) were given heparin, but no significant association was found between the type of anticoagulant being given and hypokalemia (p =0.754). No significant difference was observed with respect to gender in the development of hypokalemia (p =0.782).

Conclusion: This study showed that hypokalemia was a significant clinical manifestation among SARS-COV-2 patients. Further it was noted that treatment regime used for COVID-19 management and gender of the patients are not a risk factor for developing the hypokalemia.




How to Cite

Zahoor, S., Malik, U., Muhammad Atif, M., Asif, S., Khan, A., Hanif, S., Rafique, I., & Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib. (2024). Frequency of Hypokalemia, Clinical Implications and Risk Factors in Patients of COVID-19. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, 62(4), 148–152. Retrieved from