Anxiety and Depression and its Risk Factors Among Post-Menopausal Women-Hospitals Based Study
Background: Lifespan of female encompasses several distinct epochs, each with characteristic hormonal, psychological and physiological changes. Women experienced a variety of symptoms after menopause.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression and its risk factors among post-menopausal women.
Study type settings & duration: Cross-sectional study was conducted in hospitals of Lahore, and University of Lahore, Teaching Hospital, General Hospital, Services Hospital and Teaching Hospital of University of Lahore from July 2019 to Sep 2019.
Methodology: A total of 178 participants were enrolled in this study. A standard self-rating questionnaire Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) was used to calculate Anxiety and Depression scores. MenQOL questionnaire was used to assess the menopausal symptoms and their influence on anxiety and depression. Data was entered in SPSS version 21.0.
Results: The mean age of the sample of post-menopausal women was 51.29+5.510 with a minimum age of 45 years and maximum age of 65 years. The 65 (36.5%) of respondents had score ranging borderline abnormal and 91 (51.1%) respondents had score ranging abnormal in depression domain of HADs. It was found that 64 (34.0%) were at borderline abnormal level and 98 (55.1%) had score ranging abnormal in anxiety domain of HADs. Majority of menopausal symptoms were proved the statistically significant (p-value <0.05) risk factors for anxiety and depression.
Conclusion: Post-menopausal group shows significant prevalence of anxiety and depression. Menopausal symptoms are factors that contribute to anxiety and depression. There is need of counseling and implementation of coping strategies to reduce ..........
(1) University of Lahore, Lahore
(2) University of Lahore, Lahore
(3) University of Lahore, Lahore
(4) University of Lahore, Lahore
(*) Corresponding Author