Gender and outcome based comparison of Comorbidities among Decompensated heart failure patients visiting Cardiology Department of Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi
Keywords:Heart failure, comorbidities, gender, outcome, cardiology, ischemic heart disease, diabetes
Objective: To determine the gender and outcome based differences of comorbidities among the decompensated heart failure patients.
Study type, settings & duration: A comparative analytical study was conducted at Cardiology department of Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi both through Out Patient Department (OPD) and Hospital Emergency from February 2018 to March 2020.
Methodology: The study was carried out among 252 decompensated heart failure patients. The subjects were enrolled in this research through consecutive sampling. The data was gathered pertinent to socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidities and health outcomes by means of self-administered structured questionnaire. The data analysis was done by using SPSS version 25.0. Gender and outcome based comparison of comorbidities was carried out by application of chi-square test and Fisher’s Exact test. Association between comorbidities and health outcome was verified by Fisher’s Exact test. Chi-square test was applied to confirm association between comorbidity and family history. Statistical association of smoking with comorbidity was determined by Fisher’s Exact test. The p ≤ 0.05 was taken as significant.
Results: Of the total 252 heart failure patients, 147 were males and 105 were females. Mean age of our study subjects was 56.34±15.9 years. Majority (48.4%) of our heart failure patients were 51-70 years old. Gender based variations in all comorbid states were found to be statistically insignificant. About 207 patients had diverse comorbidities and among them, 74 (35.7%) had 3 or more comorbid states. Ischemic heart disease was reported among 103(49.7%) patients. Diabetes among heart failure patients was determined to have statistically significant association .........